【ISO全般】規格の経済的価値(6)

(LRQA ジャパン: チャーリーン・イードゥ)

私は子供の頃野菜が嫌いだったので、母は私にいつも野菜を食べるように言っていた。「ほうれん草を食べると大きく強くなれる」「にんじんは目が良くなる」「野菜を食べないと、風邪を引いて死んでしまう」しかし、これらは私には効果が無かった。
一方、父はもっと現実的な対応を心得ていて、「野菜を食べたら、1ドルあげよう」と言った。その言葉に、私は嫌いな野菜をあっという間に平らげた。 つまり、何かが「役に立つ」からといって、必ずしも私たちはやりたくなるとは限らない。時には、金銭的利益が少しあれば効果が上がるということだ。

同じようなことが規格についても言える。私たちは、規格が品質向上に非常に役立ち、海外市場への参入パスポートとなり、さらに効率化に寄与する等々聞かされている。だが、それだけでは得心がいかない。誰もが目に見える結果を欲しがる時代だ。規格を導入することで、顧客満足を向上させ、新たな営業機会をもたらすと聞いた。しかし本当に知りたいのは、「それはどの位の価値があるか?」ということだ。

この疑問に答えてくれる新しい研究結果が、ISO(国際標準化機構)から「規格の経済的価値 (Economic Benefits of Standards) 」 という記事として発表された。調査対象は約30社、従業員25人の小規模会社から年間売上高15億USドル超(日本円で1,600億円超)の大企業まで種々である。調査対象となった会社は異なる業種から選ばれているが、規格導入の効果はそれぞれ年間売上高の 0.15%から 5%という結果となった。

ISO focus最新号(2014年9月・10月106号)では、規格の経済的価値を実証する事例を取り上げている。幾つかの事例を紹介すると、

  • 野菜生産のDanper Trujillo は、年間総利益を30% 増加
  • レンガ製造業者のLobatse Clay Works は、税引き前利益を4.96% 増加
  • プラスチック製造業者のGerfor は、規格に適合することで総売上高を47% 増大、PVC(ポリ塩化ビニル)樹脂の検査・分析に掛かる時間を4時間から15分に短縮
  • 技術提供業者のFesto Brasilは、税引き前利益を437万ブラジルレアル 上乗せ
  • スーパーマーケット・チェーンの NTUC Fair Priceは、過去10年間で得た利益を1,360万シンガポールドルと推定

これらの成功事例は規格に適合することで生じる利益を示しているが、私達が本当に知りたいのは次のことである。「我が社にとって、規格のメリットはどの位あるのか?」もし、この点に興味がおありなら、ISO(国際標準化機構)の「規格の経済的価値」という記事は、ヒントになることだろう。この最新号の記事は、ISOがこの調査を行い事例に関する情報を集めるのに使った評価手法を掲載している。

組織を評価する手法の主なステップは、次の4段階である。

  1. その業界と組織のバリューチェーン(価値連鎖)を理解する 
  2. 規格の影響を特定する 
  3. バリュードライバーを分析する 
  4. 結果を評価し統合する 

詳細な手法及びツールについては、ISOのウェブサイトから無料でダウンロード可(英語のみ)。 
http://www.iso.org/iso/pub100344.pdf 

概要報告書及び事例集は、こちらからダウンロード可(英語のみ)。
http://www.iso.org/iso/benefits_of_standards.html 

LRQAジャパン事務所にご連絡いただければ、規格を使って貴社のビジネスを改善する方法について、より詳細な情報を提供いたします。我々の長年にわたるグローバルでの審査・認証・研修サービスの経験と実績をもって、貴社のマネジメントシステムを有効に機能させるお手伝いをいたします。




Standards: Value for money? - Part 6

LRQA Japan: Charlene Ede 

This is Part 6 of LRQA’s guide to using the ISO’s study on ‘Economic Benefits of Standards’. Hopefully you’ve been following along and are now with us at Step 4: Assessing and consolidating results.

So far we’ve looked at using value chains to get a clearer idea of your company’s activities and setting the scope of your evaluation. We identified the activities in your scope that are impacted by standards and talked about finding ways to measure those impacts in the form of ‘operational indicators’. 

This is where we got up to last time:

Potential Impacts and Operational Indicators

Now let’s look at taking the operational indicators that you use to measure the impact of standards on your activities and turning them into financial figures.

Although the ISO’s study simply says ‘Step 4: Assess and consolidate results’, it’s really a three stage process:

Step 4:

  • a) Using the operational indicator, compare the activity’s performance with the standards and without.
  • b) Convert operational indicators into financial figures and calculate the gap (performance with standards less performance without standards).
  • c) Add up the improvement figures for all the activities and compare it to gross profit.

Ok, let’s start with a), where we compare a situation in which standards are implemented to a situation where they aren’t. 

The simplest comparison is a ‘Before and After’ type. If you have data on your operational indicators from before the standards were implemented, you can easily compare it to the data you have now that standards have been implemented. Say that two years ago, you used to get 15 customer complaints a month. You introduced ISO 9001 to improve the quality of your products and now your complaints are down to 10 a month. So, implementing ISO 9001 helped reduce your complaints by a third. Very simple! But what if you don’t have data from before you implemented the standard? 

In that case, how about using the ‘Concurrent conditions’ comparison method? Here you compare a situation where standards are used to one where they aren’t. For example, one of your branches uses ISO 14001 to reduce their environmental waste. How does their utility bill compare to another branch of the same size that doesn’t use this standard?  

Some of you may not have implemented a certain standard yet and want to know if you should. You’ll need to use a ‘What-if’ comparison where you estimate what might happen without the standard. For example, do you have a standard in place to help you continue your business in the case of a disaster? If a major earthquake stops you from operating for one month, how much will that lost productivity cost you? Similarly, what if one of your clients requires that you comply with a standard but you fail your assessment? How much would that lost business cost you? 

As you can see, you can use these methods not only to help you evaluate your existing standards but also to help you decide if you should adopt new ones, or even new versions of the same standard. This is particularly relevant now with the major revisions coming up for ISO 9001 and ISO 14001. 

Here we’ve taken our manufacturing example and compared the situation before and after the implementation of standards:

Comparing situations with and without standards

On the left we have each of our operational indicators and then we have their values before and after the standards were implemented. On the right, we have the amount that each value has improved.

Now, let’s move on to b), where we finally start dealing with real money. Some of your operational indicators may already be in monetary terms. For example, if you are evaluating the impact of a standard on your marketing activity and your operational indicator is ‘Monthly sales figures’, that’s already measurable in financial terms.  Most times, however, it won’t be that easy. In our example, we saw that thanks to standards, we now use one kilogram less packaging material per product. The next logical step is to see how much packaging material costs. In our example below, we’ve priced it at 100 yen per kilogram. So if we save 1 kilogram per product, we are therefore saving 100 yen per product. 

For packaging time, we’ve used ‘Cost of labor per hour’ and priced it as 60,000 yen for the whole production team of this particular product. This is one way to do it, but you might like to use other operating costs such as how much you spend on electricity each hour or even the cost of renting your plant and equipment. In our case, we’ve used labor and found that standards save us .01 hours per product, which is a saving of 600 yen per product.

Converting operational indicators into financial figures

Once you have all your improvements in financial terms, you can start with c), adding them up and comparing them to gross profit. 

But wait, how can I add up my improvement figures when they aren’t using the same measurements?! Well, as you can see from the worked example below, you will likely need some extra information here. In our case, we needed to know how many products we made so that we could compare the ‘per product’ figures we had in Packaging to the ‘per month’ figures we had in Quality Control. 

We multiplied the ‘improvement per product’ figures by the number of products we made each month and that gave us our monthly improvement figures for Packaging. 

Comparing improvement to gross profit

After we converted all our improvements into yearly financial figures and added them up, we divided that total by our gross profit. Just in Packaging and Quality Control alone, standardization saved us 86,460,000 yen and this improved our gross profit by a healthy 2.4%!

Honestly though, you may find that your figures aren’t so impressive. In which case, it’s time to move on to Step 5. Actually, the ISO Study doesn’t mention a Step 5 but it’s not a secret. It’s simply the next obvious stage where you take all the information you’ve gathered and use it to improve your implementation. Now you know what the impacts of standardization are and how they affect your bottom line, you can focus your efforts where they are most needed. Use this evaluation not just to show the economic value of standards but to tailor your whole approach for better results. 

On the other hand, maybe your results were better than you ever imagined. In that case, maybe you should be thinking about expanding your implementation of standards to get even more benefits. 

However your evaluation turned out, at least now you finally have an answer to the question, “How much?”


お問合せ/Enquiries

ロイド レジスター クオリティ アシュアランス リミテッド 
Lloyd's Register Quality Assurance Limited 

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